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(Common Gateway Interface), is generally the most way for web servers to interact dynamically with users. Common uses include online feedback and online forms.
This takes the form of a computer program that allows web servers to forward requests for processing to other programs, which then return their results to the web server.
Depending on the context in which the acronym is used, CGI can also stand for Computer Generated Graphics.
The 15 Essential UNIX commands
This is a good quick reference of the basics. It is from the website of Pete Freitag, software developer from New York. The site is worth a browse, it has a cheat sheet roundup!